A Couve de Albertina (Portuguese Edition)
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Queen Maria cristina with her three children. Princess Beatrice with children. Albert Neuhuys - Moeder en kind. Albert Neuhuys - Noordse madonna. Asher Fehling. William-Adolphe Bouguereau - Le sommeil ca. Brocky, Karoly - Mother and Child Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel David de la Mar - A young family with a goat in a landscape. David de la Mar - Country woman with her children. David de la Mar - Mother and child in a farm interior. Eastman Johnson - The Mother c Erastus Salisbury Field Mother and Child ca.
Famille de la comtesse d'Artois. Family portraits of Novosiltsev. Fran Vesel - Mati z otrokom. Frederick Walker - Mother with a baby and a nursemaid. Hugh Douglas Hamilton - Portrait of a woman and child in an interior. Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal with her daughters August Jacob Seisenegger Portrait of a mother with her eight children. Janis Rozentals - Under the Cherry Tree. Josef Kriehuber Kaiserin Elisabeth mit ihren Kindern Julius Carl Schulz - Mutter und Kind. Karl Witkowski - Mother with Children, La Comtesse Catherine Sergueewna Samoiloff.
Lembranzas GFDL. Louise de la Valliere. Maria Anna de Luxembourg. Gari Melchers - Mother and Child c. Pierre-Auguste Renoir - Mother nursing her child. Rozentals gimene sigulda. The retreat follows a "Purgative-Illuminative-Unitive" pattern in the tradition of the spirituality of John Cassian and the Desert Fathers.
ISBN 13: 9789892040462
Ignatius' innovation was to make this style of contemplative mysticism available to all people in active life. Further, he used it as a means of rebuilding the spiritual life of the church. The Exercises became both the basis for the training of Jesuits and one of the essential ministries of the order: giving the exercises to others in what became known as "retreats". The Jesuits' contributions to the late Renaissance were significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry.
By the time of Ignatius' death in , the Jesuits were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents. A precursor to liberal education , the Jesuit plan of studies incorporated the Classical teachings of Renaissance humanism into the Scholastic structure of Catholic thought. In addition to the teachings of faith , the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum would standardize the study of Latin , Greek , classical literature, poetry, and philosophy as well as non-European languages, sciences, and the arts.
Furthermore, Jesuit schools encouraged the study of vernacular literature and rhetoric , and thereby became important centres for the training of lawyers and public officials. The Jesuit schools played an important part in winning back to Catholicism a number of European countries which had for a time been predominantly Protestant, notably Poland and Lithuania. Today, Jesuit colleges and universities are located in over one hundred nations around the world.
Under the notion that God can be encountered through created things and especially art, they encouraged the use of ceremony and decoration in Catholic ritual and devotion. Perhaps as a result of this appreciation for art, coupled with their spiritual practice of "finding God in all things", many early Jesuits distinguished themselves in the visual and performing arts as well as in music.
The theater was a form of expression especially prominent in Jesuit schools. Jesuit priests often acted as confessors to kings during the early modern period. They were an important force in the Counter-Reformation and in the Catholic missions, in part because their relatively loose structure without the requirements of living and celebration of the Liturgy of Hours in common allowed them to be flexible and meet diverse needs arising at the time. After much training and experience in theology, Jesuits went across the globe in search of converts to Christianity.
Despite their dedication, they had little success in Asia except for the Philippines. For instance, early missions in Japan resulted in the government granting the Jesuits the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in However, this was removed in due to fears over their growing influence. Their ascendancy in societies in the Americas accelerated during the seventeenth century, wherein Jesuits created new missions in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia; as early as , there were Jesuit priests in Mexico alone. Francis Xavier , one of the original companions of Loyola , arrived in Goa , in Portuguese India , in to consider evangelical service in the Indies.
He died in China after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. The Italian Jesuit Ippolito Desideri established a new Jesuit mission in Lhasa and Central Tibet —21 and gained an exceptional mastery of Tibetan language and culture, writing a long and very detailed account of the country and its religion as well as treatises in Tibetan that attempted to refute key Buddhist ideas and establish the truth of Roman Catholic Christianity. Jesuit missions in America became controversial in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments.
The Jesuits were often the only force standing between the Native Americans and slavery. Together throughout South America but especially in present-day Brazil and Paraguay , they formed Christian Native American city-states, called "reduction s". These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model.
The efforts of Jesuits like Antonio Ruiz de Montoya to protect the natives from enslavement by Spanish and Portuguese colonizers would contribute to the call for the society's suppression. They also built schools, organized people into villages, and created a writing system for the local languages of Brazil. Jesuit scholars working in foreign missions were very important in studying their languages and strove to produce Latinized grammars and dictionaries. Under Portuguese royal patronage , Jesuits thrived in Goa and until successfully expanded their activities to education and healthcare.
In they founded the first Roman-style academic institution in the East, St. Paul Jesuit College in Macau , China. Founded by Alessandro Valignano , it had a great influence on the learning of Eastern languages Chinese and Japanese and culture by missionary Jesuits, becoming home to the first western sinologists such as Matteo Ricci. Jesuit efforts in Goa were interrupted by the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portuguese territories in by the powerful Marquis of Pombal , Secretary of State in Portugal. Jesuit missionaries were active among indigenous peoples in New France in North America, many of them compiling dictionaries or glossaries of the First Nations and Native American languages they had learned.
For instance, before his death in , Jacques Gravier , vicar general of the Illinois Mission in the Mississippi River valley, compiled a Kaskaskia Illinois—French dictionary , considered the most extensive among works of the missionaries. Paul's College. The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution , to China. The scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when scientific innovation had declined in China:.
Meaning of "pariparoba" in the Portuguese dictionary
They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture. Their Latin works popularized the name " Confucius " and had considerable influence on the Deists and other Enlightenment thinkers, some of whom were intrigued by the Jesuits' attempts to reconcile Confucian morality with Catholicism.
Upon the arrival of the Franciscans and other monastic orders, Jesuit accommodation of Chinese culture and rituals led to the long-running Chinese Rites controversy. The Jesuits became involved in the Huron mission in and lived among the Huron peoples. Outside conflict forced the Jesuits to leave New France in when Quebec was captured by the Kirke brothers under the English flag.
In , Jesuit Jerome Lalemant decided that the missionaries among the Hurons needed a local residence and established Sainte-Marie , which expanded into a living replica of European society. Throughout most of the s the Jesuits had great success, establishing five chapels in Huronia and baptising over one thousand Huron natives.
The Iroquois grew jealous of the Hurons' wealth and fur trade system, began to attack Huron villages in They killed missionaries and burned villages, and the Hurons scattered. However, facing starvation, lack of supplies, and constant threats of Iroquois attack, the small Sainte-Marie II was abandoned in June ; the remaining Hurons and Jesuits departed for Quebec and Ottawa. After the collapse of the Huron nation, the Jesuits were to undertake the task of converting the Iroquois, something they had attempted in with little success.
In the Iroquois nation had a fallout with the Dutch. They then signed a peace treaty with the French and a mission was established. The Iroquois took the treaty lightly and soon turned on the French again. In , the Jesuits were having very little success and were under constant threat of being tortured or killed,  but continued their effort until when they abandoned their permanent posts in the Iroquois homeland.
By , Jesuits turned to maintaining Quebec, Montreal, and Ottawa without establishing new posts. The English barred the immigration of more Jesuits to New France. By , there were only twenty-one Jesuits stationed in New France. By only eleven Jesuits remained. The Jesuit mission in Quebec was re-established in There were a number of Jesuit colleges founded in the decades following; one of these colleges evolved into present-day Laval University. The Jesuits in New Spain distinguished themselves in several ways.
They had high standards for acceptance to the order and many years of training. They attracted the patronage of elite families whose sons they educated in rigorous newly founded Jesuit colegios "colleges" , including Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo , Colegio de San Ildefonso , and the Colegio de San Francisco Javier, Tepozotlan. Those same elite families hoped that a son with a vocation to the priesthood would be accepted as a Jesuit.
Jesuits were also zealous in evangelization of the indigenous, particularly on the northern frontiers. To support their colegios and members of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits acquired landed estates that were run with the best-practices for generating income in that era. A number of these haciendas were donated by wealthy elites.
The donation of a hacienda to the Jesuits was the spark igniting a conflict between seventeenth-century bishop of Puebla Don Juan de Palafox and the Jesuit colegio in that city. Since the Jesuits resisted paying the tithe on their estates, this donation effectively took revenue out of the church hierarchy's pockets by removing it from the tithe rolls. Many of Jesuit haciendas were huge, with Palafox asserting that just two colleges owned , head of sheep, whose wool was transformed locally in Puebla to cloth; six sugar plantations worth a million pesos and generating an income of , pesos.
Although most haciendas had a free work force of permanent or seasonal labourers, the Jesuit haciendas in Mexico had a significant number of black slaves. The Jesuits operated their properties as an integrated unit with the larger Jesuit order; thus revenues from haciendas funded their colegios. Jesuits did significantly expand missions to the indigenous in the northern frontier area and a number were martyred, but the crown supported those missions.
The Franciscans, who were founded as an order embracing poverty, did not accumulate real estate, unlike the Augustinians and Dominicans in Mexico. The Jesuits engaged in conflict with the episcopal hierarchy over the question of payment of tithes, the ten percent tax on agriculture levied on landed estates for support of the church hierarchy from bishops and cathedral chapters to parish priests.
Since the Jesuits were the largest religious order holding real estate, surpassing the Dominicans and Augustinians who had accumulated significant property, this was no small matter. As elsewhere in the Spanish empire, the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in Their haciendas were sold off and their colegios and missions in Baja California were taken over by other orders. Motezuma's Corona mexicana, o Historia de los nueve Motezumas was completed in He "aimed to show that Mexican emperors were a legitimate dynasty in the 17th-century in the European sense.
Their re-introduction to Mexico was "to assist in the education of the poorer classes and much of their property was restored to them. Viceroy of Peru Don Francisco de Toledo urged the Jesuits to evangelize the indigenous peoples of Peru, wanting to put them in charge of parishes, but Acosta adhered to the Jesuit position that they were not subject to the jurisdiction of bishops and to catechize in Indian parishes would bring them into conflict with the bishops.
For that reason, the Jesuits in Peru focused on education of elite men rather than the indigenous populations. To minister to newly arrived African slaves, Alonso de Sandoval — worked at the port of Cartagena de Indias. Sandoval wrote about this ministry in De instauranda Aethiopum salute ,  describing how he and his assistant Pedro Claver , later canonized, met slave transport ships in the harbour, went below decks where slaves were chained, and gave physical aid with water, while introducing the Africans to Christianity.
In his treatise, he did not condemn slavery or the ill-treatment of slaves, but sought to instruct fellow Jesuits to this ministry and describe how he catechized the slaves. Rafael Ferrer was the first Jesuit of Quito to explore and found missions in the upper Amazon regions of South America from to , which belonged to the Audiencia high court of Quito that was a part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until it was transferred to the newly created Viceroyalty of New Granada in He was martyred by an apostate native in Jesuit Lucas de la Cueva and Raimundo de Santacruz opened up two new routes of communication with Quito, through the Pastaza and Napo rivers.
Between and , Samuel Fritz founded 38 missions along the length of the Amazon river, between the Napo and Negro rivers, that were called the Omagua Missions. These missions were continually attacked by the Brazilian Bandeirantes beginning in the year In , the only Omagua mission that was left was San Joaquin de Omaguas, since it had been moved to a new location on the Napo river away from the Bandeirantes. In the immense territory of Maynas, the Jesuits of Quito made contact with a number of indigenous tribes which spoke 40 different languages, and founded a total of Jesuit missions encompassing , inhabitants.
Because of the constant epidemics smallpox and measles and warfare with other tribes and the Bandeirantes , the total number of Jesuit Missions were reduced to 40 by At the time when the Jesuits were expelled from Spanish America in , the Jesuits of Quito registered 36 missions run by 25 Jesuits of Quito in the Audiencia of Quito — 6 in the Napo and Aguarico Missions and 19 in the Pastaza and Iquitos Missions, with the population at 20, inhabitants. The first Jesuits arrived in , and in Philip III proclaimed that only the "sword of the word" should be used to subdue Paraguayan Indians, mostly Guarani.
The church granted Jesuits extensive powers to phase out the encomienda system of forced labor, angering settlers dependent on a continuing supply of Indian labor and concubines. The first Jesuit mission in the Paraguay area which encompassed the border regions of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil was founded in By , the Jesuits had gathered into 30 missions or reductions a total of , Guarani. Due to disease, European politics, and internal discord, the population in the missions declined afterwards.
In the early years the new Jesuit reductions were threatened by the slave-raiding bandeirantes. The bandeirantes captured Indians and sold them as slaves to planters in Brazil. The Spanish authorities chose not to defend the settlements, and the Jesuits and their thousands of neophytes thus had little means to protect themselves. Subsequently, the viceroy of Peru conceded the right of bearing arms to the Guarani.
Thereafter, well-trained and highly motivated Indian units were able to defend themselves from slavers and other threats. These reductions, which became quite wealthy, exported goods, and supplied Indian armies to the Spanish on many occasion. The reductions, where the Jesuits created orchestras, musical ensembles , and actors' troupes, and in which virtually all the profits derived from Indian labor were distributed to the labourers, earned praise from some of the leaders of the French enlightenment, who were not predisposed to favour Jesuits.
Masters of the country, they rendered happy the people under their sway; they succeeded in subduing them without ever having recourse to force. Because of their success, the Paraguayan Jesuits gained many enemies, and the Reductions fell prey to changing times. During the s and s, Paraguayan settlers rebelled against Jesuit privileges in the Revolt of the Comuneros and against the government that protected them. Although this revolt failed, it was one of the earliest and most serious risings against Spanish authority in the New World and caused the crown to question its continued support for the Jesuits.
The Jesuit-inspired War of the Seven Reductions —61 increased sentiment in Madrid for suppressing this "empire within an empire. Within a few decades of the expulsion, most of what the Jesuits had accomplished was lost. Today, these ruins of a year experiment have become a tourist attraction. The Jesuits took part in the foundation of the city of Rio de Janeiro in The success of the Jesuits in converting the indigenous peoples is linked to their efforts to understand the native cultures, especially their languages.
The Jesuits often gathered the aborigines in communities the Jesuit Reductions where the natives worked for the community and were evangelised. The Jesuits had frequent disputes with other colonists who wanted to enslave the natives. The action of the Jesuits saved many natives from being enslaved by Europeans, but also disturbed their ancestral way of life and inadvertently helped spread infectious diseases against which the aborigines had no natural defenses.
Slave labor and trade were essential for the economy of Brazil and other American colonies, and the Jesuits usually did not object to the enslavement of African peoples, but rather critiqued the conditions of slavery. Having further considered that the said Company of Jesus can no longer produce those abundant fruits, And to this end a member of the regular clergy, recommendable for his prudence and sound morals, shall be chosen to preside over and govern the said houses; so that the name of the Company shall be, and is, for ever extinguished and suppressed.
The suppression was carried out in all countries except Prussia and Russia, where Catherine the Great had forbidden its promulgation. Because millions of Catholics including many Jesuits lived in the Polish provinces recently annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia , the society was able to maintain its existence and carry on its work all through the period of suppression. Subsequently, Pope Pius VI would grant formal permission for the continuation of the society in Russia and Poland, with Stanislaus Czerniewicz elected superior of the society in Pope Pius VII had resolved during his captivity in France to restore the Jesuits universally, and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay.
On 7 August , by the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum , he reversed the suppression of the society, and therewith another Polish Jesuit, Thaddeus Brzozowski , who had been elected to Superior in Russia in , acquired universal jurisdiction. The period following the Restoration of the Jesuits in was marked by tremendous growth, as evidenced by the large number of Jesuit colleges and universities established in the 19th century.
In the United States, 22 of the society's 28 universities were founded or taken over by the Jesuits during this time. It has been suggested that the experience of suppression served to heighten orthodoxy among the Jesuits upon restoration. While this claim is debatable, Jesuits were generally supportive of papal authority within the church, and some members were associated with the Ultramontanist movement and the declaration of Papal Infallibility in In Switzerland, following the defeat of the Sonderbund Catholic defense alliance, the constitution was modified and Jesuits were banished in The ban was lifted on 20 May , when In the Constitution of Norway from , a relic from the earlier anti-Catholic laws of Denmark-Norway , Paragraph 2 originally read: "The Evangelical-Lutheran religion remains the public religion of the State.
Those inhabitants, who confess thereto, are bound to raise their children to the same. Jesuits and monastic orders are not permitted. Jews are still prohibited from entry to the Realm.
Synonyms and antonyms of pariparoba in the Portuguese dictionary of synonyms
Monastic orders were permitted in , but the ban on Jesuits was only lifted in Republican Spain in the s passed laws banning the Jesuits on grounds that they were obedient to a power different from the state. Pope Pius XI wrote about this: "It was an expression of a soul deeply hostile to God and the Catholic religion, to have disbanded the Religious Orders that had taken a vow of obedience to an authority different from the legitimate authority of the State.
In this way it was sought to do away with the Society of Jesus — which can well glory in being one of the soundest auxiliaries of the Chair of Saint Peter — with the hope, perhaps, of then being able with less difficulty to overthrow in the near future, the Christian faith and morale in the heart of the Spanish nation, which gave to the Church of God the grand and glorious figure of Ignatius Loyola. The 20th century witnessed both growth and decline. Following a trend within the Catholic priesthood at large, Jesuit numbers peaked in the s and have declined steadily since.
Meanwhile, the number of Jesuit institutions has grown considerably, due in large part to a post—Vatican II focus on the establishment of Jesuit secondary schools in inner-city areas and an increase in voluntary lay groups inspired in part by the Spiritual Exercises.
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Among the notable Jesuits of the 20th century, John Courtney Murray was called one of the "architects of the Second Vatican Council " and drafted what eventually became the council's endorsement of religious freedom, Dignitatis humanae. In Latin America, the Jesuits had significant influence in the development of liberation theology , a movement that was controversial in the Catholic community after the negative assessment of it by Pope John Paul II in Under Superior General Pedro Arrupe , social justice and the preferential option for the poor emerged as dominant themes of the work of the Jesuits.
When Arrupe was paralyzed by a stroke in , Pope John Paul II, not entirely pleased with the progressive turn of the Jesuits, took the unusual step of appointing the venerable and aged Paolo Dezza for an interim to oversee "the authentic renewal of the Church",  instead of the progressive American priest Vincent O'Keefe whom Arrupe had preferred.
The son of former Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Avery Dulles was long known for his carefully reasoned argumentation and fidelity to the teaching office of the church. An author of 22 books and over theological articles, Dulles died on 12 December at Fordham University , where he had taught for twenty years as the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society. He was, at his passing, one of ten Jesuit cardinals in the Catholic Church. Leahy initiated the Church in the 21st Century program as a means of moving the church "from crisis to renewal".
The initiative has provided the society with a platform for examining issues brought about by the worldwide Catholic sex abuse cases , including the priesthood , celibacy, sexuality , women's roles, and the role of the laity. In April , Thomas J. Reese , editor of the American Jesuit weekly magazine America , resigned at the request of the society. Following his resignation, Reese spent a year-long sabbatical at Santa Clara University before being named a fellow at the Woodstock Theological Center in Washington, D.
He was a man of profound prayer, which found its center and its culmination in the daily Eucharistic Celebration. As my Predecessors have said to you on various occasions, the Church needs you, relies on you and continues to turn to you with trust, particularly to reach those physical and spiritual places which others do not reach or have difficulty in reaching. Before he became Pope, he was appointed bishop when he was in "virtual estrangement from the Jesuits" since he was seen as "an enemy of liberation theology" and viewed by others as "still far too orthodox", trying to protect Jesuits but not approving of their participation in violent groups.
The General Congregation of Jesuits who elected Arturo Sosa in asked him to bring to completion the process of discerning Jesuit priorities for the time ahead. Sosa devised a two-year plan that enlisted all Jesuits and their lay collaborators in the process. Then in February he presented the results of the discernment, a list of four priorities for Jesuit ministries for the next ten years.
Pope Francis gave his approval to these priorities, saying that they are in harmony with the Church's present priorities and with the programmatic letter of his pontificate, Evangelii gaudium.
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The spirituality practiced by the Jesuits, called Ignatian spirituality, ultimately based on the Catholic faith and the gospels, is drawn from the Constitutions , The Letters , and Autobiography , and most specially from Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises , whose purpose is "to conquer oneself and to regulate one's life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment. The formation training of Jesuits seeks to prepare men spiritually, academically, and practically for the ministries they will be called to offer the church and world.
Ignatius was strongly influenced by the Renaissance , and he wanted Jesuits to be able to offer whatever ministries were most needed at any given moment and, especially, to be ready to respond to missions assignments from the pope. Formation for priesthood normally takes between eight and fourteen years, depending on the man's background and previous education, and final vows are taken several years after that, making Jesuit formation among the longest of any of the religious orders. The society is headed by a Superior General with the formal title Praepositus Generalis , Latin for "provost-general", more commonly called Father General or General.
He is elected by the General Congregation for life or until he resigns; he is confirmed by the Pope and has absolute authority in running the society. The Father General is assisted by "assistants", four of whom are "assistants for provident care" and serve as general advisors and a sort of inner council, and several other regional assistants, each of whom heads an "assistancy", which is either a geographic area for instance the North American Assistancy or an area of ministry for instance higher education.
The assistants normally reside with Father General in Rome and along with others form an advisory council to the General. A vicar general and secretary of the society run day-to-day administration. The General is also required to have an admonitor , a confidential advisor whose task is to warn the General honestly and confidentially when he might be acting imprudently or contrary to the church's magisterium.
The central staff of the General is known as the Curia. The society is divided into geographic provinces, each of which is headed by a Provincial Superior, generally called Father Provincial, chosen by the General. He has authority over all Jesuits and ministries in his area, and is assisted by a socius who acts as a sort of secretary and chief of staff. With the approval of the General, the provincial appoints a novice master and a master of tertians to oversee formation, and rectors of local communities of Jesuits.
To date, three main forms are known to me in terms of housing. We excluded all three of these forms for our house.
This was not what we were looking for. Our home is far away from the next town. It is disconnected in every respect. There is only the vast empty landscape around us. It is a real retreat. The primary intention here is to create a secluded garden. The surrounding walls are up to five and a half meters high to provide the necessary shade and the entire impression created is one of a desert, dry, stony and dusty.
Everything is constructed from slightly reddish, in situ concrete. The character of the complex is chiefly defined by the surrounding walls, which create the impression of petals that close and open towards the sky. The dwelling itself is invisible and develops across a single floor behind the surrounding walls. The living room is located at the end of a strict axis leading from north to south.